IRB - Ethical Principles
The era of modern human subjects’ protection began with the Nuremberg Code, developed for the Nuremberg Military Tribunal as standards by which to judge the human experimentation conducted by the Nazis. The Code captured many of what are now taken to be the basic principles governing the ethical conduct of research involving human subjects. Similar recommendations were made by the World Medical Association in its Declaration of Helsinki: Recommendations Guiding Medical Doctors in Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, first adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly in Helsinki, Finland, in 1964, and subsequently revised in 1975, 1989, and 2000. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki further distinguished therapeutic from non-therapeutic research and introduced an institutional mechanism to ensure that its principles were followed.
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