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MLA Revised - 7th Edition

(This should not replace use of other MLA resources)

MLA Update 2009:

The MLA Handbook, published in 2009, reveals some dramatic changes, primarily:

Each citation must signify a medium of publication at the end of each entry, such as Print, DVD, TV, Performance, or Web, the latter of which must include the date of access.

Robbins, Tom. Still Life with Woodpecker. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Print.

Instead of underlining titles of books, periodicals and databases, MLA now recommends that such titles be italicized.

de Zengotita, Thomas. "Attack of the Superzeroes." Harper's Magazine. 309.1855 (2004): 35-42. Print.

Those REALLY long URLs in your article citations are a thing of the past! However, you must still list the author, title of the article, and the name of the website where you found the article. In addition, if you don't have complete information for your article, you are still asked to provide a URL.

Uhir, Paul. Re-Intermediation in the Republic of Science: Moving from Intellectual Property to Intellectual Commons. Information Services and Use. 23.2/3 (2003): 63-66. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Dec. 2004.

Abbreviations. If the source from which you are citing doesn't have a source listed, use N.p. to signify no publisher given. If no date is given, use n.d. for no date. Finally, for journals which are published only online, write n.pag. for no pagination.

New York: N.p., 2008.
New York, U of Gotham, n.d.
New York: U of Gotham P, 2008. N. pag.

What do you need to know how to cite?

MLA Works Cited:

Citing Authors:

List author's last name first; if more than one author, they should be listed in the order they are in the text.

Single Author
Hemingway, Ernest.

Multiple Authors
Smith, John L., and Martha Brown.
Smith, John L., Suzanne Smith, and Martha Brown.

For four or more authors, either list all the authors, or the first author followed by "et al."
James, Jordan, Sarah Smith, Judy Lynch, and Marshall Grey.
James, Jordan, et al.

Corporate Author
American Civil Liberties Union.
United States. Department of Agriculture.

Unknown Author
Begin citation with the work's title.
Titles of articles and other short works are put in quotation marks. Titles of books and websites are italicized.

More than one work by the same author
Use the author's name only in the first entry. For other entries use three hyphens followed by a period. Titles should be in alphabetical order.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Penguin, 1997. Print.
---. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1946. Print.

Citing Books:

Basic Book Format

There are four parts in the basic book format. Each is followed by a period and one space.

  1. Author;
  2. title, italicized;
  3. publication information; and
  4. medium of publication.

Robbins, Tom. Still Life with Woodpecker. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Print.

Author with Editor
Kerouac, Jack. Atop on Underwood. Ed. Paul Marion. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.

Haycox, Stephen W., and Mary Childers Mangusso, ed. An Alaska Anthology: Interpreting the Past. Seattle: Univ. of WA Press, 1996. Print.

Work that is a part of an Anthology
This citation has seven parts:

  1. author of work, not the editor of the anthology;
  2. title of the selection;
  3. title of the anthology;
  4. editor's name;
  5. publication information;
  6. page numbers of work; and
  7. medium of publication.

Dauenhauer, Richard L. "Two Missions to Alaska." An Alaska Anthology: Interpreting the Past. Ed. Stephen W. Haycox and Mary Childers Mangusso. Seattle: Univ. of WA Press, 1996. 76-88. Print.

Citing Articles in Periodicals:

These citations have eight parts:

  1. author;
  2. title of work, in quotations;
  3. periodical title, italicized;
  4. volume, if needed;
  5. issue, if needed;
  6. date;
  7. page numbers; and
  8. medium of publication.

Monthly Magazine
Sutterby, John A. "What Kids Don't Get To Do Anymore and Why." Childhood Education. 85.5 (2009): 289-292. Print.

Weekly Magazine
Quinn-Judge, Paul, and Yuri Zarakhovich. "The Orange Revolution." Time 6 Dec. 2004:50-54. Print.

**For articles on consecutive pages, note the page range, such as 124-137. For articles that are not consecutive, note the first page it appears on and a plus sign, such as 53+.

Journal Numbered by Volume
These journals start numbering at page 1 in the first issue of the year, and page numbers continue throughout the year instead of starting with page 1 in each issue. In these citations only not the volume number, year, and pages.

Egerton, George. "Entering the Age of Human Rights: Religion, Politics, and Canadian Liberalism, 1945-50." The Canadian Historical Review 85 (2004): 451-179. Print.

Journal Numbered by Issue
This refers to journals in which each issue begins with the page number 1. After the volume number, put a period and then the issue number.

Messud, Claire. "Then." Kenyon Review 26.4 (2004): 34-45. Print.

Daily Newspaper
Bowlen, Scott. "What in the World? Fisherman Lands Odd Fish that's Rarely Caught." The Ketchikan Daily News 18-19 Dec. 2004: B1. Print.

Citing Electronic Sources:

Website citations can have eight parts:

  1. author;
  2. title;
  3. name of creator/editor;
  4. date of publication;
  5. name of sponsoring organization;
  6. date accessed;
  7. URL, in brackets, if necessary for identification; and
  8. medium of publication (Web).

Websites with Author
Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther. 20 Aug. 2005. Web. 05 Dec. 2008. <>.

Corporate Author Website
United States. General Services Administration. 22 Dec. 2004 Web. 31 August 2009.

Websites with Unknown Author
Margaret Sanger Papers Project. 18 Oct. 2000. History Dept., New York U. 3 Apr. 2001. Web.

Poems, Essays or Other Short Works in an Online Book

The title should be in quotation marks, followed by the title of the book, italicized. If you're citing the introduction or other section of the book, don't use quotation marks.

Mill, John Stuart. "On Liberty." Harvard Classics, vol. 25, pt. 2. Ed. Charles Eliot. New York: P.F. Collier & Sons, 1914. 2001. Web. 21 Dec 2004.

Article from a Database
These citations have four parts:

  1. bibliographic information (author, title, etc.);
  2. name of database, italicized;
  3. name of database vendor; and
  4. date accessed.

Whitehead, Hal and Carolyn Glass. "Orcas (Killer Whales) Attack Humpback Whales." Journal of Mammalogy 66:1 (1985) : 183-185. JSTOR. Web. 31 August 2009.

Citing Multimedia:

Work of Art

These citations have three parts:

  1. artist's name;
  2. name of work, italicized; and
  3. institution and city where it can be found.

Kandinsky, Vasily. Composition 8. July 1923. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. 21 Dec. 2004. Web.

Personal Interview

Name of person interviewed, followed by "personal interview" and date of the interview.

Stevens, Ted. Personal Interview. 22 Dec. 2004.

Citing Other Sources:

Government Publications

The government agency is considered the author. First list the government (i.e., United States), and then the name of agency. For publications found online, add date accessed and URL at the end, unless it's obvious.

United States. United States Forest Service. Lumber Recovery Studies of Alaska Sawmills, 1997-1999. Portland, OR: Pacific Northwest Research Station, 2002. 22 Dec. 2004 <>.

Recommended Resource:

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.


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